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HomeHealth TopicMental Health

What Is Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy?

Joanna Jan, MDKatie E. Golden, MD
Written by Joanna Jan, MD | Reviewed by Katie E. Golden, MD
Published on October 18, 2021

Key takeaways:

  • Munchausen syndrome by proxy (MSBP) is a mental illness in which a person intentionally creates or lies about an illness in someone for whom they are a caregiver.

  • This disorder is rare, but it’s also likely underreported because it can be difficult to diagnose.

  • The victims of MSBP can suffer significant harm, so they should be removed from the situation as soon as possible. 

Mother with her young daughter talking with the doctor about diabetes medications.
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Munchausen syndrome by proxy (MSBP) is a psychiatric disorder in which someone makes up symptoms or intentionally causes illness in another person. This is also known as “factitious disorder imposed on another.” MSBP is a rare condition, but it’s also likely underdiagnosed. It  most commonly happens in a parent-child relationship. And 1 out of every 200,000 children under the age of 16 is a victim. But it can also affect adults who are dependent on someone's care, such as older adults or people with developmental delays. Here we’ll review the common behaviors of this condition. We’ll also describe what to do if you suspect someone is the victim of a person with this disorder. 

Who is affected by Munchausen syndrome by proxy?

There are two people affected in any MSBP diagnosis — the person with the condition and the person who’s victimized by them. 

Someone with MSBP is more likely to be:

But someone with MSBP doesn't have to fit these criteria. Given that the disorder is so rare, there’s variation in the typical person who has this condition. 

The person who receives the care — or harm — from someone with MSBP tends to be:

  • A young child

  • An older adult of advanced age

  • Someone with a disability or chronic medical condition who relies on a caregiver

Behaviors associated with Munchausen syndrome by proxy

There are many ways that people with MSBP can create or lie about symptoms in those who are affected by their behavior. People with this psychiatric condition can:

  • Give poisons or medications that cause noticeable symptoms or side effects 

  • Cause infections by injecting unsterile material into skin or intravenous (IV) lines 

  • Withhold food or water to cause dehydration or malnutrition

  • Inject dye or blood into bodily fluids, or provide false fluid samples for testing

  • Suffocate someone to cause unconsciousness

  • Physically injure someone

  • Provide made-up medical records that document a false diagnosis or lab results

  • Encourage invasive or unnecessary testing or treatment

Victims of people with MSBP often have:

  • Frequent or repeated hospitalizations for unexplained symptoms

  • A long medical history without obvious cause for their symptoms

  • Recurrence or no improvement in their illness after medical care that should make them better

  • A caregiver who’s always present when the symptoms occur

  • Symptoms that get better when the caregiver isn’t around

MSBP can be hard to spot, and it’s very difficult to diagnose. This is partly because people with MSBP often appear to be very attentive caretakers. And they make it look like they’re advocating for those dependent on them. Plus, the victims are often unaware that they’re being abused. Or they may not be able to communicate it to ask for help. 

Why does Munchausen syndrome by proxy happen?

There’s no clear answer to why people exhibit the behaviors seen in MSBP. One commonly cited reason is that people with MSBP exaggerate the caregiver role in their search for attention or sympathy. They’re gratified when they appear necessary and indispensable to someone else. 

People with MSBP may receive financial gain or gifts from people or organizations who want to help. But that’s not thought to be the primary motivator for their behaviors. This is because people with MSBP still exhibit characteristic behaviors even in the absence of financial incentive. Individuals with MSBP often have poor insight into their behavior and the reasons behind it. 

How can I help someone if I suspect Munchausen syndrome by proxy?

MSBP is a mental illness, and the caregivers diagnosed with it need psychiatric help. But MSBP is also a form of abuse. That’s because the victims of people with MSBP can get seriously hurt or even die from the actions of their caregivers.

If you suspect that someone is the victim of a caregiver with MSBP, it’s important to report your suspicions to child or adult protective services in your state, or report to the police. You may also report your suspicions to healthcare providers involved in the victim’s care. And if you think someone’s health or life is in immediate danger, call 911. 

For children, you may also call the Childhelp National Child Abuse Hotline at 1-800-422-4453. This number is available 24 hours a day and 7 days a week. Professionals can help guide you to the appropriate resources to help a victim of someone with MSBP (or any other form of child abuse). 

The bottom line

MSBP is a rare but potentially harmful psychiatric condition. Oftentimes, it’s unsuspected for years and is quite difficult to diagnose. This is especially true because the person with this condition often appears to be a concerned and involved caretaker. If you suspect that someone may be the victim of a person with MSBP, the first step is to report your concern to protective services. This way, both the victim and the caregiver with MSBP can receive the care and medical attention they need.


Bools, C., et al. (1994). Munchausen syndrome by proxy: A study of psychopathology. Child Abuse & Neglect.

Childhelp. (2021). The Childhelp National Child Abuse Hotline.

View All References (4)

de Sousa, D., et al. (2017). Munchausen syndrome and Munchausen syndrome by proxy: a narrative review. Einstein (Sao Paulo).

McClure, R. J., et al. (1996). Epidemiology of Munchausen syndrome by proxy, non-accidental poisoning, and non-accidental suffocation. Archives of Disease in Childhood.

Meadow, R. (1989). ABC of child abuse. Munchausen syndrome by proxy. The BMJ.

Meadow, R. (1994). Who’s to blame—Mothers, Munchausen, or medicine? Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London.

GoodRx Health has strict sourcing policies and relies on primary sources such as medical organizations, governmental agencies, academic institutions, and peer-reviewed scientific journals. Learn more about how we ensure our content is accurate, thorough, and unbiased by reading our editorial guidelines.

For additional resources or to connect with mental health services in your area, call SAMHSA’s National Helpline at 1-800-662-4357. For immediate assistance, call the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 988, or text HOME to 741-741 to reach the Crisis Text Line.

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