Pharmacologic ClassificationsOpioid Agonist/Antagonist
Buprenorphine is a schedule III controlled substance with the potential for addiction, abuse, and misuse, which can lead to overdose and death. Assess each patient's risk before prescribing, and monitor for development of these behaviors or conditions. Serious, life-threatening, or fatal respiratory depression may occur. Monitor closely, especially upon initiation or following a dose increase. Chewing, swallowing, snorting, or injecting buprenorphine extracted from the patch will result in uncontrolled delivery which may lead to overdose and death. Accidental exposure to buprenorphine, especially in children, can result in fatal overdose of buprenorphine. Prolonged use of buprenorphine during pregnancy can result in neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, which may be life-threatening if not recognized and treated. If opioid use is required for a prolonged period in a pregnant woman, advise the patient of the risk of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome and ensure that appropriate treatment will be available .
Buprenorphine transdermal (skin patch) is used to treat moderate to severe chronic pain when around-the-clock pain relief is needed for a long period of time. It belongs to the group of medicines called narcotic analgesics (pain medicines). It acts on the central nervous system (CNS) to relieve pain.
The buprenorphine skin patch should not be used if you need pain medicine for just a short time, such as after surgery. Do not use this medicine for mild pain or pain that you only have once in a while or "as needed."
When a narcotic medicine is used for a long time, it may become habit-forming, causing mental or physical dependence. However, people who have continuing pain should not let the fear of dependence keep them from using narcotics to relieve the pain. Mental dependence (addiction) is not likely to occur when narcotics are used for this purpose. Physical dependence may lead to withdrawal side effects if treatment is stopped suddenly. Severe withdrawal side effects can usually be prevented by gradually reducing the dose over a period of time.
This medicine is available only with your doctor's prescription.
Your doctor will tell you how much of this medicine to use and how often. Your dose may need to be changed several times in order to find out what works best for you. Do not use more medicine or use it more often than your doctor tells you to.
Buprenorphine transdermal comes with a Medication Guide and patient instructions. Read the instructions carefully before using the product. If you do not receive any printed instructions with the medicine, or do not understand the instructions, check with your nurse or doctor.
To use the skin patch:
- Use this medicine exactly as directed by your doctor. It will work only if it has been applied correctly.
- This medicine should only be used on intact, non-irritated skin. Do not put the patch in your mouth, chew, or swallow it.
- Buprenorphine skin patches are packaged in sealed pouches. Do not use this medicine if the pouch seal is broken, or if the patch is cut, damaged, or changed in any way. Do not remove the patch from the sealed pouch until you are ready to apply it.
- This medicine is available in 3 different strengths and patch sizes. Make sure you have the right strength patch that has been prescribed for you.
- When handling the skin patch, be careful not to touch the adhesive (sticky) surface with your hand. The adhesive part of the system contains some buprenorphine, which can be absorbed into your body too fast through the skin of your hand. If any of the medicine does get on your hand, rinse the area right away with a lot of clear water. Do not use soap or other cleansers.
- Be careful not to tear the patch or make any holes in it. Damage to a patch may allow buprenorphine to pass into your skin too quickly. This can cause an overdose.
- Apply the patch to a dry, flat skin area on your upper arm, chest, back, or side of the chest. Choose a place where the skin is not very oily and is free of scars, cuts, burns, or any other skin irritations.
- The patch will stay in place better if it is applied to an area with little or no hair. If you need to apply the patch to a hairy area, you may first clip the hair with scissors, but do not shave it off.
- If you need to clean the area before applying the medicine, use only plain water. Do not use soaps, other cleansers, lotions, or anything that contains oils or alcohol. Be sure that the skin is completely dry before applying the medicine.
- Remove the liner covering the sticky side of the skin patch. Then press the patch firmly in place, using the palm of your hand, for a minimum of 15 seconds. Make sure that the entire adhesive surface is attached to your skin, especially around the edges. Do not rub the patch.
- If the patch becomes loose, tape the edges with first aid tape. Do not cover it with any other bandage or tape.
- If the patch falls off after applying it, throw it away and apply a new patch in a different area.
- Wash your hands with a lot of clear water after applying the medicine. Do not use soap or other cleansers.
- Remove the patch after 7 days, or as directed by your doctor. Choose a different place on your skin to apply the next patch. If possible, use a place on the other side of your body. Wait at least 3 weeks (21 days) before using the first area again.
The dose of this medicine will be different for different patients. Follow your doctor's orders or the directions on the label. The following information includes only the average doses of this medicine. If your dose is different, do not change it unless your doctor tells you to do so.
The amount of medicine that you take depends on the strength of the medicine. Also, the number of doses you take each day, the time allowed between doses, and the length of time you take the medicine depend on the medical problem for which you are using the medicine.
- For transdermal dosage form (skin patch):
- For moderate to severe chronic pain:
- Adults—If you are not using other narcotics regularly, your doctor will determine the correct dose. If you are using other narcotics regularly, your dose will be based on your present daily narcotic dose. Your doctor may adjust the dose if needed. The patch is applied to the skin and left in place for 7 days.
- Children—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor.
- For moderate to severe chronic pain:
If you forget to wear or change a patch, put one on as soon as you can. If it is almost time to put on your next patch, wait until then to apply a new patch and skip the one you missed. Do not apply extra patches to make up for a missed dose.
Use & StorageTOP
Store the medicine in a closed container at room temperature, away from heat, moisture, and direct light. Keep from freezing.
Keep out of the reach of children.
Do not keep outdated medicine or medicine no longer needed.
Ask your healthcare professional how you should dispose of any medicine you do not use.
Buprenorphine can cause serious unwanted effects or a fatal overdose if taken by children, pets, or adults who are not used to strong narcotic pain medicines. Make sure you store the medicine in a safe and secure place to prevent others from getting it.
Use the patch-disposal unit that was provided with your prescription to dispose of the patches. Read and follow the printed instructions on the disposal unit and use one unit for each patch. Peel off the liner of the disposal unit to reveal the sticky surface. Place the sticky side of the used patch on the disposal unit and seal the entire package. If the patch has not been used, take it out of the pouch and remove the liner that covers the sticky side before placing it on the disposal unit. Throw the sealed disposal unit in a trash can. Talk to your pharmacist if you have questions about how to use the disposal unit. Do not flush the pouch or the protective liner down the toilet. Put them in a trash can.
In deciding to use a medicine, the risks of taking the medicine must be weighed against the good it will do. This is a decision you and your doctor will make. For this medicine, the following should be considered:
Tell your doctor if you have ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to this medicine or any other medicines. Also tell your health care professional if you have any other types of allergies, such as to foods, dyes, preservatives, or animals. For non-prescription products, read the label or package ingredients carefully.
Appropriate studies have not been performed on the relationship of age to the effects of buprenorphine transdermal in the pediatric population. Safety and efficacy have not been established.
Appropriate studies performed to date have not demonstrated geriatric-specific problems that would limit the usefulness of buprenorphine transdermal in the elderly. However, elderly patients are more likely to have constipation and difficult or painful urination, and have age-related heart, kidney, liver, or lung problems, which may require caution and an adjustment in the dose for patients receiving buprenorphine transdermal.
|All Trimesters||C||Animal studies have shown an adverse effect and there are no adequate studies in pregnant women OR no animal studies have been conducted and there are no adequate studies in pregnant women.|
Studies in women breastfeeding have demonstrated harmful infant effects. An alternative to this medication should be prescribed or you should stop breastfeeding while using this medicine.
Although certain medicines should not be used together at all, in other cases two different medicines may be used together even if an interaction might occur. In these cases, your doctor may want to change the dose, or other precautions may be necessary. When you are taking this medicine, it is especially important that your healthcare professional know if you are taking any of the medicines listed below. The following interactions have been selected on the basis of their potential significance and are not necessarily all-inclusive.
Using this medicine with any of the following medicines is not recommended. Your doctor may decide not to treat you with this medication or change some of the other medicines you take.
Using this medicine with any of the following medicines is usually not recommended, but may be required in some cases. If both medicines are prescribed together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use one or both of the medicines.
- Chloral Hydrate
- Methylene Blue
- Morphine Sulfate Liposome
- Nitrous Oxide
- Opium Alkaloids
- Sodium Oxybate
- St John's Wort
- Tolonium Chloride
Certain medicines should not be used at or around the time of eating food or eating certain types of food since interactions may occur. Using alcohol or tobacco with certain medicines may also cause interactions to occur. The following interactions have been selected on the basis of their potential significance and are not necessarily all-inclusive.
Using this medicine with any of the following is usually not recommended, but may be unavoidable in some cases. If used together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use this medicine, or give you special instructions about the use of food, alcohol, or tobacco.
Other Medical ProblemsTOP
The presence of other medical problems may affect the use of this medicine. Make sure you tell your doctor if you have any other medical problems, especially:
- Alcohol abuse, or history of or
- Angina or
- Atrial fibrillation (abnormal heart rhythm) or
- Bradycardia (slow heartbeat) or
- Brain tumor, history of or
- Central nervous system (CNS) depression, history of or
- Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or
- Congenital long QT syndrome (abnormal heart rhythm) or
- Congestive heart failure or
- Cor pulmonale (serious heart problem) or
- Drug dependence, including narcotic or illicit drug abuse or dependence, or history of or
- Gallbladder disease or gallstones or
- Head injury, history of or
- Heart disease or
- Heart rhythm problem, or family history of or
- Hypokalemia (low potassium in the blood) or
- Hypothyroidism (an underactive thyroid) or
- Liver disease (including hepatitis B or C) or
- Lung or breathing problems (eg, low oxygen levels) or
- Mental illness, or history of or
- Problems with passing urine or
- Sleep apnea or
- Stomach or bowel problems (eg, blockage) or
- Weakened physical condition—Use with caution. May increase risk for more serious side effects.
It is very important that your doctor check your progress while you are using this medicine. This will allow your doctor to see if the medicine is working properly and to decide if you should continue to take it. Blood tests may be needed to check for unwanted effects.
Using narcotics for a long time can cause severe constipation. To prevent this, your doctor may direct you to take laxatives, drink a lot of fluids, or increase the amount of fiber in your diet. Be sure to follow the directions carefully, because continuing constipation can lead to more serious problems.
Using this medicine while you are pregnant may cause serious unwanted effects in your newborn baby. Tell your doctor right away if you think you are pregnant or if you plan to become pregnant while using this medicine.
This medicine will add to the effects of alcohol and other CNS depressants (medicines that can make you drowsy or less alert). Some examples of CNS depressants are antihistamines or medicine for allergies or colds, sedatives, tranquilizers, or sleeping medicine, other prescription pain medicine or narcotics, medicine for seizures or barbiturates, muscle relaxants, or anesthetics, including some dental anesthetics. Check with your doctor before taking any of the other medicines listed above while you are using this medicine.
This medicine may make you dizzy, drowsy, confused, or disoriented. Make sure you know how you react to this medicine before you drive, use machines, or do anything else that could be dangerous if you are dizzy or not alert.
Dizziness, lightheadedness, or fainting may occur when you get up suddenly from a lying or sitting position. Getting up slowly may help lessen this problem. Also, lying down for a while may relieve the dizziness or lightheadedness.
If you develop swelling, burn, or blisters at the application site, stop using this medicine and tell your doctor right away.
This medicine may cause serious allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis can be life-threatening and requires immediate medical attention. Call your doctor right away if you have a rash, itching, hoarseness, trouble breathing, trouble swallowing, or any swelling of your hands, face, or mouth while you are using this medicine.
Heat can cause the buprenorphine in the patch to be absorbed into your body faster. This may increase the chance of serious side effects or an overdose. While you are using this medicine, do not use a heating pad, a sunlamp, or a heated water bed, and do not sunbathe, or take long baths or showers in hot water. Also, check with your doctor if you get a fever.
If you have been using this medicine regularly for several days, do not suddenly stop using it without first checking with your doctor. You may be directed to gradually reduce the amount you are using before stopping treatment completely to lessen the chance of withdrawal side effects (eg, abdominal or stomach cramps, fever, runny nose, anxiety, or restlessness).
If the patch comes off and accidentally sticks to the skin of another person, they should take the patch off immediately and wash the exposed area with water. The exposed person should then seek medical attention.
Using too much buprenorphine, or taking too much of another narcotic while using buprenorphine, may cause an overdose. If this occurs, get emergency help right away. An overdose can cause severe breathing problems (breathing may even stop), unconsciousness, and death. Symptoms of an overdose include very slow breathing (fewer than 8 breaths a minute) and drowsiness that is so severe you are not able to answer when spoken to or, if asleep, cannot be awakened. Other signs of an overdose may include cold, clammy skin, low blood pressure, pinpoint (small) pupils of the eyes, and a slow heartbeat.
Do not take other medicines unless they have been discussed with your doctor. This includes prescription or nonprescription (over-the-counter [OTC]) medicines and herbal or vitamin supplements.